A bone is said to be deformed when it is not in the normal shape or size. Poor alignment of a bone or a joint can also lead to deformity. A deformed bone looks typically appears bent or twisted. Bone deformities can be noticed in arms, legs, nose and even ears!
There are a number of reasons why bone deformities occur. However, most of cases are caused by congenital disorders, development disorders, metabolic disorders and traumatic injuries. In some cases, arthritis, rheumatoid disorders, or any other illness that was not present at birth can also lead to a deformity
Types of Deformities
Some of the common deformities are Clubfoot, Genu Varum, Genu Valgum, Post traumatic deformities. The treatment for correcting these conditions often involves a surgery where the bones are straightened and brought back to their normal shape and alignment. This procedure is called Deformity Correction.
Clubfoot is a very common congenital defect. It affects the muscles and bones in the both feet of baby and makes it difficult for the baby to child normally. The deformed feet turn inward, towards the opposite leg. Orthopedic surgeons recommend treatment of clubfeet to correct the bones and tendons at an early age so that the child can start walking, develops strong muscles and leads a life as normal as any other healthy child – wear shoe, walk properly and participate in sports. When clubfoot is not treated at the right time, it leads to severe functional disability.
Clubfoot cannot be left untreated, as it will never get back to normal on its own. The mild cases are treated with the following non-surgical procedures like Ponseti serial casting and Bracing.
Surgeries: When the defect is severe, or during the advanced stages of the treatment, we recommend a percutaneous surgery is performed to cut the Achilles tendon. It the deformity is severe, it needs open surgery to correct the deformity.
Genu Varum is a condition where the larger bone of your shins, tibia, turns inward instead of aligning with the large bone of your high, femur. Due to this legs curve outwards at the knees. The knees stay away from each other and ankles touch each other. This condition is also called “Bow Legs.” Several babies have Genu Varum till they are 18 months or two years old. During this period as the leg bones start to grow and the legs straighten out.
A child that has physiologic bow legs does not require any treatment because the condition is corrected as the child grows. In case of Rickets, including foods high in calcium and vitamin D in the diet can help with the condition. Children with Blount disease need surgery or a brace.
Surgeries: There are two types of surgeries recommended to correct Genu Varum caused by Blount
Guided growth: In this type of surgery, a small metal plate or a staple is used to stop the growth on healthy side of the shinbone. The abnormal side of the shinbone straightens the leg as the child grows. When the alignment is better, the plate or staple is removed and normal growth resumes. Tibial osteotomy: In this type of surgery, the shinbone is cut below the knee and reshaped to fix the alignment. The plate and screws are inserted or an external frame is fixed on the outside of the leg to hold the bones in place.
Genu Valgum is a condition where the legs curve inward at the knees and touch each other, but the leg part below the knees is straight. It is also called “Knock Legs.” Genu valgum usually corrects itself by the time the child reaches 7 or 8 years of age. Based on the severity of Genu Valgum, the doctor will suggest Physical therapy and exercises, Orthotics, Calcium and Vitamin D enriched diet, and Weight loss.
Surgery: When the knock knees are too apparent and in cases where physiotherapy, weight loss, and exercises are not effective, the doctors will suggest a surgery.
There are two types of surgical options:
Guided growth: In this procedure, small metal plates are inserted into knees of the child. The plates can be removed later once the condition is corrected. Children are recipients of this procedure.
Osteotomy: This procedure is performed on adults. In this case, permanent metal plates are inserted to
realign the knees. The plates act as permanent braces to keep the knee properly aligned.
Joint Preservation Surgery
People with joint related injuries, and conditions like arthritis, when they are unable to bear the pains, and when their day-to-day activity starts getting affected, opt for a joint replacement surgery. However, in the recent decades, extensive medical research done in this area resulted in techniques through which the joints can be preserved. The primary goal of joint preservation is to preserve cartilage, prevent injury or inflammation and avoid or delay joint replacement surgery. The joint preservation techniques include surgical and non-surgical procedures.
The Joint preservation surgery is a boon for athletes, physically active people, and youngsters suffering from joint degenerative conditions. Thanks to this treatment, joint pain is no longer a hindrance for the athletes to participate in sports and other events. Non-Surgical procedures for Joint Preservation include steroid injections and Hyaluronic Acid Injections, Platelet Rich Plasma Therapy.
High Tibial Osteotomy:
High Tibial Osteotomy is an orthopedic surgical procedure done for the re-alignment of knees. It is a type of joint preservation technique done for patients with osteoarthritis.
The procedure of High Tibial Osteotomy involves shifting some weight from the painful and damaged portion of the knee to the healthy tissue. It is done by removing or adding a wedge of bone to the shin bone (tibia) area below the knee. The surgeon will bring the remaining bones together to fill the space. Plates and screws are inserted to hold the bones in place. This procedure is done in young patients with maligned knees.