Spinopelvic refers to the area where the pelvis and spine meet. Fixation refers to utilization of fixation devices such as rods and screws to immobilize a part of the spine and allow healing.
Spinopelvic fixation is a surgical procedure in which the base of the spine is immobilized using rods and screws and accompanied by a fusion procedure. A fusion encourages specific bones to grow together or fuse permanently to form one solid bone. A solid fusion bestows stability to the region. Fixation devices function by holding the spine stable as the bones grow together.
A Spinopelvic fixation procedure involves both the lumbar (lower) spine and the sacrum (base of the spine).
Lumbosacral dissociation is the main indication for spinopelvic fixation. Lumbosacral dissociation is a high-energy traumatic injury that results in anatomic separation of the vertebral column from the pelvis and is most often associated with neurological deficits as well as other fractures. Fractures of the sacrum also result in spinopelvic dissociation or instability. Spinopelvic fixation helps to achieve complete exclusion of the fractured sacrum from weight-bearing and restore stability to an unstable pelvis. It is recommended for the treatment of conditions such as:
- Scoliotic spine degeneration
- Degenerative spondylolisthesis or spinal stenosis
- Infection of the pelvic joints and bones
- Resection of pelvic tumors requiring bone removal from the sacrum or lumbar vertebrae
- Revision failed fusion and fixation surgery